Relational database management Store & retrieve Modern creativity Designed, Breakthrough performance Turning raw data into reports Language preference available
Most comprehensive, Advanced features, Management tools, Technical support Highest levels scalability security reliability uptime Reduced risk cost & complexity
Offers organizations with enterprise-scale database technology, Cloud/on-premises Leading enterprise-grade relational database Secure management & transaction
Database management software offers businesses to capture a mantle, store, and organize the structured and unstructured data. These management systems have a set of tools that provides users to manage, integrate and combine all the data sets from multiple non-relational data sources into an integrated company-wide database.
Database: Database is a set of inter-related data which helps in efficient retrieving, inserting as well as deleting of data from database and coordinates the data in the form of tables, views, reports etc. Suppose database of an university is there to be organized. The data about students, faculty, and admin staff etc. gets help in efficient retrieval, insertion and deletion of data from it.
DDL is Data Definition Language, that deals with database descriptions, of how the data should reside in the database.
CREATE: Creating a database with table, index, views, store procedure, function, and triggers.
ALTER: altering the structure of the existing database
DROP: deleting objects from the database
TRUNCATE: removing all records from a table, with all spaces allocated for the records are removed
COMMENT: adding comments to the data dictionary
RENAME: renaming an object
DML is Data Manipulation Language that deals with data manipulation and has most common SQL statements such SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, etc., and it helps in storing, modifying, retrieving, deleting and updating data in a database.
SELECT: retrieving data from a database
INSERT: inserting data into a table
UPDATE: updating existing data within a table
DELETE: Deleting all records from a database table
MERGE: UPSERT operation (inserting/updating)
CALL: calling a PL/SQL or Java subprogramming
EXPLAIN PLAN: interpreting of the data access path
LOCK TABLE: concurrency Control
Database Management System: The software that is used to manage database is called Database Management System (DBMS). MySQL and Oracle are popular industrial DBMS used in various applications. DBMS provides users the following tasks:
Data Definition: It offers to help in creating, modifying and removing of definitions that define the organization of data in database.
Data Updation: It offers inserting, modifying and deleting of the actual data in the database.
Data Retrieval: It provides retrieval of data from the database that can be used by applications for different tasks.
User Administration: It offers to register and monitor users, enforces data security, monitors performance, maintains data integrity, concurrency control and recovers information wasted by unexpected failure.
File System manages data using files in hard disk. Users are provided a space for creating, deleting, and updating the files according to their needs. File based University Management System have data of students is provided to their related Departments, Academics Section, Accounts Section, Result Section, Hostel Office etc. Most of the data is common for all sections like Roll No, Name, Father Name, Address and Phone number of students but some data is available to a particular section only like Hostel allotment number which is a part of hostel office. The issues with this system:
Repeated data: Data is said to be redundant if same data is copied at many places. If a student needs to change House Address, he has to get it updated at various sections. Old records must be deleted from all sections representing that student.
Inconsistent Data: Data inconsistency of multiple copies of similar data does not match with each other. If Phone number is different in Accounts Section and Academics Section, it will be inconsistent. Inconsistency may arise due to typing errors or non-updated all copies of same data.
Difficult Data Access: A user should know the exact location of file to access data which is very cumbersome and tedious. If user needs to get student hostel allotment number of a student from 10000 unsorted students’ records, it can be totally unimaginable situation.
Unauthorized Access: File System leads to unauthorized access to data. If a student gets thru file having his marks, he can amend it using unauthorized gateways.
No Concurrent Access: The access of same data/files by multiple users in a same time frame is called concurrency. File system restricts concurrency as data can be accessed by only single user at a time.
No Backup and Recovery: File system incorporating any backup and recovery of data if a file is lost or corrupted.
Database management software creates single data source to be leveraged by multiple users simultaneously. It helps enforce safety standards for a business’ data. It provides organizations to become better, broader, and much more efficient user of their key data by combining capabilities for data manipulation, analytics, and reporting. Specific advantages include:
Minimized data redundancy: A database looks like as a collective pool of a business’ data and can be accessed by individuals, teams, or departments. When records are changed in one central system, they’re simultaneously updated across all other places in real time, offering all users with the latest version. This eliminates data inconsistencies and redundant updates at the individual or departmental level.
Creating backups to prevent data loss: Data is the most crucial resource for any business; businesses cannot lose it. Database management software provides both manual and recurring backups, perfecting complete data recovery due to human error or natural disaster.
Increase data search speed: Database management software handles thousands of search queries simultaneously from multiple users, helping out with answers almost instantaneously.
Data Management: Storing, categorizing, managing, updating, and retrieving data from the database based on user commands.
Data Retrieval: Acquiring specific data from a database by submitting certain queries or commands.
Queries: Entering a set of instructions, performing specific actions like updating, retrieving, and calculating in the database.
Data Replication: Creating duplicates of a database across multiple servers and using distributed databases for the users to provide access data relevant to their task without interfering with others’ work.
Data Security: Ensuring security of the database facility, with data, database applications, servers, and associated network links from malicious attacks, illegitimate use, or external threats.
Database Conversion: Transferring data from one database to another called data migration.
There is no fixed pricing structure for database management software. Different sellers provide varying pricing models based on factors like usage, perpetual license, monthly/annual subscriptions, and per server. Basic plans is per user, per month basis. Most database management software sellers don’t disclose their pricing, making it difficult for small businesses to compare solutions. User has to collect and compile a shortlist of sellers, and contact them for rates based on personal requirements. This way, user will have a personalized quote for the solution that meets business’ exact needs.
Deployment options: Database management software have a variety of deployment options, with self-hosted, cloud-hosted by the seller, or cloud-hosted by a third party. Self-hosted solutions mostly incur high one-time licensing costs on top of software update costs, but provide a faster data transfer speed. For cloud-hosted solutions, monthly as well as annual subscription costs are typically lower, making the solutions more economical when user required to scale. The systems present challenges in the transfer speed of large-volume data sets as compared to on-premise systems.
Data models: Database management solutions are available in two variants: relational software that works on structured data and non-relational software that works on both structured and unstructured data sources. Businesses should determine whether a product works on structured, unstructured, or both data types when compiling a software shortlist.
Implementation and service costs: Database management software is expensive; it often gets a high initial investment and recurring support and maintenance costs. Pricing options available to user business when users start searching for software, check the requirements and budget constraints, and select accordingly.
Database management is getting smarter with learning and intelligence: As the volume of data keeps enhancing, it’s becoming more difficult and complex for database administrators to organize and check the database settings like memory usage, read/write speed, and data storage for best use. Database management software provides built-in machine learning abilities that check previous settings and determine how the system responds to various configurations. It then automatically gathers the system with recommended configurations, saving administrators time and effort.
Cloud-based deployment is on the rise: More and more buyers are getting in cloud-based database management software deployment, that helps them from having to install expensive servers at their office and avoids the complexity of handling the servers and networks.
Non-relational database management systems are gaining traction: The need for non-relational database management software—that accounted decrease of five percent of the overall database market due to systems’ ability to manage both structured and unstructured data sets.