Recreational drugs, when abused and overused, may cause addiction—a condition where a person can no longer control their usage. This country is dealing with addiction and substance abuse on an epidemic level, and the problem is still growing. Though most people believe that the drugs themselves cause addiction, it’s clear that the issue arises from the interaction of substances with the brain’s chemical pathways. Because of this difference, addiction is now considered a psychiatric disorder and a brain disease. Here, you’ll learn about the world’s most addictive drugs and the symptoms they cause.
Heroin is an illicit opiate derived from morphine, which itself comes from the opium poppy’s seeds. This common street drug can be injected, smoked, or snorted for a euphoric, yet sedative effect. Heroin affects the user’s brain by inhibiting neurological responses, lessening pain and creating a sense of pleasure. However, it also suppresses bodily functions such as breathing, cognitive response, and heart rate. An overdose may result in respiratory failure or death, and if usage is stopped, insomnia and anxiety are common. Those addicted to heroin may benefit from the help provided by a residential rehab program such as that found at the Discovery Institute.
Synthesized to resemble or extracted from morphine, opioids act much like heroin, but they’re legal for medicinal uses. Opioids are used to control pain, sedate patients, prevent chronic cough, and address other medical conditions. Unfortunately, these drugs are frequently abused and misused, and they may result in addiction, overdose, and other adverse mental and physical responses.
Benzodiazepines or ‘benzos’ were created to control medical conditions such as insomnia, anxiety, seizures, and panic attacks. According to the Center for Substance Abuse Research, benzodiazepines are some of the world’s most commonly prescribed medications. These drugs provide euphoric effects and they become addictive quickly, making them some of the most abused drugs in America.
Methamphetamine or ‘meth’ is a potent stimulant that may be ingested, injected, smoked, or snorted. Usage brings a quick, intense high that has powerful effects on the brain, resulting in a quick addiction. The disease has harmful physical effects including rotting teeth, open sores, weight loss, muscle twitching, increased heart rate, agitation, and depression.
Cocaine is another stimulant that was once used for medical purposes. It still is in rare cases, but it’s more commonly seen as a street drug. Along with the euphoric feelings that come with most illicit substances, cocaine makes a user feel especially energetic and alert. An addict may experience sensitivity to sound and light, rapid heartbeat, restlessness, paranoia, nosebleeds, nausea, and intestinal damage.
The addictive component of marijuana is known as THC. This compound affects memory, coordination, thinking, and pleasure responses; it can also cause delusions and hallucinations. Symptoms of overuse may include abnormal heartbeat, anxiety, paranoia, motor impairment, and breathing issues. There’s limited evidence that prolonged usage may lead to psychosis in some patients.
When a person is addicted to ethyl alcohol, they’re said to be an alcoholic. Alcohol is a sedative that causes euphoria, a relaxed feeling, and delayed motor response. A patient struggling with alcohol abuse may encounter symptoms such as an inability to focus, sexual dysfunction, liver disease, slow breathing, depression, and tachycardia.
Smoking is one of the world’s most well-known addictive behaviors, and nicotine is the substance that makes it so hard to quit. Along with feelings of euphoria, nicotine may increase a person’s energy and feeling of well-being. However, such feelings are short-lived, which leads most users to smoke multiple times a day. A person addicted to nicotine may experience anxiety, fatigue, chronic cough, heart and lung issues, and headaches.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual on Mental Disorders is the definitive guide on addiction and substance abuse. No matter which substance is used, there are certain symptoms and signs that may indicate an addiction.