The Complete Blood Count Test or CBC test is one of the most common tests for a blood count. To properly analyze the CBC test, you need to be familiar with the parts of blood – plasma and cellular components. Plasma constitutes the liquid portion of the blood which allows it to flow smoothly. The blood cells are divided into RBCs, WBCs, and platelets. The CBC test is to help in measuring the different blood cells present in the blood of the person.
Different Abbreviations in the CBC Test
With the help of a Complete Blood Count test, the overall health of any patient can be determined. This helps the physicians diagnose different diseases such as anaemia, infections, disorders, etc. Here are the common abbreviations used in the CBC test.
- Red Blood Cell (RBC)
Red blood cells perform the main function of providing the lungs with oxygen and removing the carbon dioxide content. Higher levels of RBCs indicate dehydration, congenital heart diseases, pulmonary fibrosis, renal cell carcinoma etc. Low levels of RBCs include anaemia, bleeding, malnutrition, hemolysis, sickle cell anaemia, etc.
- Hemoglobin (Hgb)
The red blood cells tend to contain a specific protein called hemoglobin. Due to hemoglobin, we have a red colour in our blood since hemoglobin is rich in iron. People who live thousands of meters above sea level tend to have higher levels of hemoglobin since their body produces more hemoglobin to fulfil the requirements of oxygen. Low levels in the hemoglobin test can lead to blood diseases such as sickle cell diseases and thalassemia.
- Hematocrit (Hct)
Hematocrit is also called packed cell volume or PCV. The total volume of red blood cells present in the blood is called Hematocrit. Determining the Hct in a person can help in the diagnosis of blood diseases, hydration level, and lack of nutrition.
- White Blood Cell
There are 5 different types of white blood cells such as neutrophils, lymphocytes, basophils, monocytes, and eosinophils. The recommended range of WBCs is 5000 to 10000 per microliter. Higher levels of WBCs indicate smoking, inflammatory diseases, tissue damage, leukaemia, etc. Lower levels of WBCs include diuretics, captopril, terbinafine, etc.
Platelets are called thrombocytes and they bind together to properly circulate the blood in order to clot over certain blood vessels that are damaged. The diagnosis of platelets helps in the diagnosis of thrombosis in a particular patient.
What A High Or Low-Value May Represent?
During the CBC analysis, if the levels of certain parameters tend to go up to down, this could be indicative of certain conditions. We are going to talk about it in detail right here.
- White Blood Cells (Leukopenia)
A low count of WBC represents a particular medical condition such as cancer, autoimmune disorder, bone marrow problems, etc. There are certain medications that can lower the count of white blood cells. Apart from that, a higher WBC count is representative of infection, inflammation, etc.
- RBC Count (Hematocrit and Hemoglobin)
Hemoglobin and Hematocrit are basically related to the RBC count. In case the readings are lower, it could be a sign of anaemia. Low levels of vitamins, blood loss, and low iron levels could be the reason for the condition. A higher count of RBCs indicates heart disease.
Lower or higher counts of platelets can actually represent a proper medical condition or actually indicate the effect of any drug. In case the platelet count is way beyond the range that is recommended, it is important to conduct some other tests to figure out the issue.
Why is CBC Test Used?
The CBC Test is one of the most popular tests for blood count in a person. There are a variety of purposes that this test actually serves. This test can be a part of the routine health checkup that is done by the doctor.
If the patient is suffering from anaemia or infection, CBC tests are ordered sometimes. Also, the test can be ordered when it comes to the proper examination of unusual bleeding in a person.
One of the main reasons for infection or inflammation would be the abnormality of different white blood cells or an increase in the count of the white blood cells. During that time a CBC test can be extremely useful in the diagnosis for sure. A high or low level of WBC can also be a sign of cancer including leukaemia and lymphoma. This is where the test becomes really important in the diagnosis for sure.
Conclusion: Importance of CBC Test
The Complete Blood Count Test helps in the diagnosis of many ailments, disorders, and diseases in patients. The wide use of this particular test in the medical diagnosis field has made it one of the most important types of blood tests for sure. Now you know what CBC means, what its abbreviations are and how can it be used.